Freitag, 31. Januar 2014

The destroyed Kurdish villages in Northern Kurdistan...

A Kurdish folk lament: " Malan Bar kir" (destroyed/uploaded of the homes):

Malan barkir of Kurdish people mourning over the inside of a stinging love song. the question is more difficult to get to stay inside or to go is the survey a kurdish folk lament that can not get out of in the Sadness, longing, pain, neither we feel in our veins, in a tone that is detected, a kurdish folk music from Dersim/Qocgirî. Forcibly displaced departure story. But far away from a mixture of mutual feelings.That sufficient parity of a single instrument, cry heard in the intonation of a hidden love recorded the song. Strange feelings, dragging humans, also did not understand "the language" fully. ''Goşte me xwar le le mişk u maran le'' ( mice and snakes? ate bodies..)the degree of pain ''keçe le rinde le bermaliya min'' (oh girl, beautiful girl, little mistress..) enough to say hosts compassion. circulating around a except for the sound of an instrument, there is no Kurdish friends throughout the journey.

 An old house of the Kurdish Ezidi in Botan. The symbols of the stone symbolize the holy sun-fire and the concept of the four elements in the originate from Medes (Kurd) mythology. The four elements Earth, Water, Air, and Fire frequently occur; sometimes including a fifth element. The concept of the four-five elements formed a basis of analysis in both Yazdanism (Mithra of Zoroastrianism) religion.

Ewer with inscription, horsemen, and vegetal decoration, Zangid period (1127–1251), dated A.H. 623 / a.d. 1226  soutern Kurdistan , Mosul
Brass; engraved and inlaid with silver; H. 14 1/2 in. (36.8 cm), W. 12 1/16 in. (30.6 cm), Diam. 8 3/8 in. (21.3 cm) Edward C. Moore Collection, Bequest of Edward C. Moore, 1891 (91.1.586)

This lavishly decorated object is inscribed around the neck: "Made by cUmar ibn al-Hajji Jaldak, the apprentice of Ahmad al-Dhaki al-Naqqash al-Mawsili in the year 623 [1226 A.D.]." Ahmad al-Mawsili, originally from Mosul in Upper Mesopotamia, was a famous metalworker who had a number of pupils.

Pyxis depicting Christ's Entry into Jerusalem, Ayyubid period (1169–1260), mid–13th century
Syria Brass; hammered, chased, inlaid with silver and black compound; H. with lid 4 1/8 in. (10.5 cm), H. without lid 3 1/2 in. (8.9 cm), Diam. 4 1/16 in. (10.3 cm)
Rogers Fund, 1971 (1971.39a,b)

Cylindrical lidded boxes (pyxides) were probably used in the Islamic world to hold ushnan (alkaline ashes of the soda plant which were used for washing). A number of these boxes were produced in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods (thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries), and this work, which has no inscription, is among a few that present Christian images. The body, entirely filled with vegetal scrolls, is divided into eight lobed medallions, each containing a figure. One medallion shows the entry of Christ into Jerusalem astride a donkey; he is accompanied by two men who are about to throw their garments under the animal's hooves and by two others who carry palm branches. Two angels hold a canopy above Christ's head, an image similar to secular throne scenes in contemporary Islamic manuscripts from northern Mesopotamia. In the medallion opposite the Entry into Jerusalem scene, a holy man is depicted frontally: he wears a chasuble, has a long, bifurcated beard, and holds a large cross. The remaining six medallions are occupied either by a figure holding an incense burner, a supplicant, or a monk. Four of these figures look toward Christ, emphasizing the focus of the composition, while the other two flank the holy man and turn toward him. The Virgin and Child with Saint Joseph are seen on the lid.

Ceramic Lantern, Ayyubid period (1169–1260), early 13th century
Syria, probably Raqqa
Stonepaste; underglaze painted in blue, luster painted on transparent glaze; H. 9 1/8 in. (23.2 cm), W. 5 3/4 in. (14.6 cm)
Edward C. Moore Collection, Bequest of Edward C. Moore, 1891 (91.1.138)

This rare object, a lantern in the shape of a domed square building suspended by means of chains, fits well in the production of vessels decorated in dark brown luster and blue highlights at Raqqa, Syria, during the Ayyubid period. Colorless and colored glass originally filled the two sides presenting lobed rosettes, whereas the other two sides have openings in the shape of trilobed arches. With its hemispherical dome and decorative finials at the four upper corners, the lantern's structure suggests a tomb or mausoleum, thus pointing to a religious or votive function. In the absence of inscriptions that might confirm its significance, however, it may have equally served a secular function.

Double–sided Tombstone, 10th century and A.H. 646/a.d. 1248–49
Marble; 22 x 15 3/4 x 2 1/4 in. (56 x 40 x 5.7 cm)
Purchase, James and Diane Burke Gift, in honor of Dr. Marilyn Jenkins–Madina, 2010 (2010.225)

This marble tombstone is carved on both sides: on the side on view, a Qur'anic verse (Sura 3:18) is inscribed in robust kufic script, characteristic of the Fatimid period. More than two centuries later, the stone was reused, again as a tomb marker. It was inverted and carved with an inscription that includes a death date of 1248–49, framed within an arch on columns with rosettes in the spandrels and a lamp suspended from its apex.

The Art of the Ayyubid Period (ca. 1171–1260) 

The Ayyubid dynasty came to power under the leadership of the Kurdish Zengid general Salah al-Din (r. 1169–93), known in Europe as Saladin. After repulsing a Crusader army that had reached the gates of Fatimid Cairo and occupying Egypt on behalf of the Zengids (1160s), Salah al-Din declared the Fatimid caliphate to be at its end, and established the Ayyubid sultanate (1171). Soon thereafter, Salah al-Din also gained control over Yemen (1174) and Syria (1180s). The conflict with the Crusaders continued throughout the Ayyubid period; Jerusalem was captured by the Muslims in 1187, then, following a failed treaty, ceded until 1244, when the city was retaken for good. The sultanate depended on mamluks (slave soldiers) for its military organization, yet the end of the dynasty in 1250 was largely caused by mamluks themselves, who overthrew the last Ayyubid sultan in Egypt, al-Malik al-Ashraf (r. 1249–50) and founded the Mamluk sultanate (1250–1517).

In the arts, the Ayyubids are known especially for their works in inlaid metalwork and ceramics, particularly luster- and underglaze-painted wares. Some objects from this period, including a group of inlaid metalwork pieces, also have Christian scenes. Signatures of artists on refined and prized brass works inlaid with silver seem to indicate that the craftsmen were from Mosul (in present-day Iraq) and had fled from the approaching Mongol armies. In the case of ceramics produced in Syria, the influence of Seljuq Iran is prevalent. Among other arts, enameled glass rose to excellence in this period and carved wood was also esteemed by Ayyubid patrons. Techniques established and developed during this time formed the foundation of the arts in the Mamluk period.

The Ayyubids were also vigorous builders. Their generous patronage led to tremendous architectural activity in Egypt and especially in Syria, and their local courts revived the cities of Damascus and Aleppo. The outstanding secular architecture from this period includes the fortified citadels of Cairo (1187) and Aleppo (early thirteenth century). Meanwhile, the establishment of madrasas, higher institutions for religious learning, such as the Zahiriya (1219) in Aleppo and that of Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (1243) in Cairo, exemplify the Ayyubid interest in Sunni education after the Shici interlude in the region under the Fatimids. Furthermore, the Madrasa al-Sahiba in Damascus (1233), built by Salah al-Din’s sister Rabia Khatun, as well as the Mausoleum of Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (1250), commissioned by his wife Shajarat al-Durr, reflects the importance of women as patrons of architecture under the Ayyubids. In terms of commemorative buildings and pious architectural initiatives, the Mausoleum of Imam al-Shafici (1211) and the Tomb of the cAbbasid Caliphs (1242–43) in Cairo are especially noteworthy.

Bell inscribed with the Kurdish Urartian royal name Argishti (Ar-Gishtî), 786–756 b.c.
Northern Kurdistan or Eastern Kurdistan, Urartian

This classical Kurdish Urartian bell has a domed top, an octagonal and perforated body with a central raised ridge, and a loop for suspension. The Urartian cuneiform inscription reads: "From the arsenal of [King] Argishti (Ar-Gihstî)." One Kurdish Argishti is known to have reigned from ca. 785–765 B.C., the second from 714–ca. 685 B.C.

Medallion with a seated Kurdish deity and a male worshipper, 8th–7th century b.c.
Urartian (The land of the Fire: Ar-Ur-Or (ArGir, Agir), Tiyan; Northern Kurdistan

Khuri, Corduene (also known as Gorduene, Cordyene, Cardyene, Carduene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Kardochi, Garden, Korduene, Korchayk, Gordian) was an ancient region located in northern Mesopotamia (Kurdish: Mezra Botan), present-day Northern Kurdistan (south-eastern Turkey) and soutern Kurdistan (northern Iraq)

According to the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Gordyene is the ancient name of the region of Botan (now Şırnak Province). It is mentioned as Beth Qardu in Syriac sources and is described as a small vassal state Zagros Mountains in the mountainous area south of Lake Van in Nortnern Kurdistan Corduene must also be sought on the left bank of the Tigris.

It has been cited as the country of the Carduchians, a fertile mountainous district, rich in pasturage. The three principalities of Corduene, Moxoene, and Zabdicene are referred to as Carduchian dynasties by Toumanoff. The Kingdom of Gordyene emerged from the declining Seleucid Empire and for most of its history, it was a province of the Roman Empire and acknowledged the sovereignty of Rome. From 189 to 90 BC it enjoyed a period of independence. The people of Gorduene were known to have worshipped the Hurrian sky God Teshub.
The kings of Urartu ruled what is now northern Kurdistan, Armenia, and eastern Kurdistan (northwestern Iran) from their capital at Tushpa (modern Wan, Kurdistan) during the early first millennium B.C. Urartian fortresses, strategically placed on high rock outcrops, dominated the landscape of their territories and protected the kingdom. This silver medallion, partially covered with gold foil, shows a Kurdish deity seated on a throne supported by lions facing a male worshipper whose arms are raised in supplication or respect. Both the deity with horned headdress on a throne supported by animals and the worshipper figure are motifs; the long fringed garments are widespread in the ancient Kurdish.Here, the scene is set on a ground line of paired zigzag lines between pairs of parallel horizontal lines, a decorative pattern characteristic of Urartian medallions. Such medallions in silver, gold, and bronze are thought to be insignias of rank and authority and have been found at sites in both Northern Kurdistan

Western Central Asia, now known as Turkmenistan(Khorasan), Uzbekistan, and northern Afghanistan (Khorasan), has yielded objects attesting to a highly developed civilization in the late third and early second millennium B.C. Artifacts from the region indicate that there were contacts with Iran to the southwest. Tools and weapons, especially axes, comprise a large portion of the metal objects from this region.

This shaft-hole axhead is a masterpiece of three-dimensional and relief sculpture. Expertly cast in silver and gilded with gold foil, it depicts a bird-headed hero grappling with a wild boar and a winged dragon. The idea of the heroic bird-headed creature probably came from western Iran, where it is first documented on a cylinder seal impression. The hero's muscular body is human except for the bird talons that replace the hands and feet. He is represented twice, once on each side of the ax, and consequently appears to have two heads. On one side, he grasps the boar by the belly and on the other, by the tusks. The posture of the boar is contorted so that its bristly back forms the shape of the blade. With his other talon, the bird-headed hero grasps the winged dragon by the neck. The dragon, probably Kurdish originating in Mesopotamia or Iran, is represented with folded wings, a feline body, and the talons of a bird of prey.

Kurdistan Agiri

Corduene (Kurds) in Jewish Sources:

Targum, a Jewish source of Talmudic period, consistently understands Ararat to be located in Corduene and not in Armenia. This region is usually identified with the landing site in Deluge mythology. According to Aggadah, Noah landed in Corduene. Berossus was also of the opinion that Xisthros landed with his ship in Corduene. Josephus cited the evidence of Berossus as proof that the Flood was not a myth and also mentioned that the remains of the Ark were still visible in the district of Carron, presumably identical with Korduene.[12] In Nashim, the third order of Talmud, Rav Nahman bar Jacob has allowed proselytization of Kurds from Corduene. This points to the existence of Jewish converts among the population of Corduene in the early 4th century.